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Title A genetic method for non-associative algebras (II) : Mendel algebra with mutation (Theory of Biomathematics and Its Applications VIII)

Author(s) Micali, Altibano; Suzuki, Osamu

Citation 数理解析研究所講究録 (2012), 1796: 39-46

Issue Date 2012-06

URL http://hdl.handle.net/2433/172914

Right

Type Departmental Bulletin Paper

Textversion publisher

Kyoto University

A genetic method for non-associative algebras (II) (Mendel algebra with mutation)

By

Altibano Micali* and Osamu Suzuki ** * Department ofMathematical Sciences, University ofMontpdlier II, Place Eugene Bataillon, Monytpellier,

France

** Department ofComputer and System Analysis College ofHumanities and Sciences, Nihon University156 Setagaya, Tokyo,Japan

E-mail: (A.Micali)micali\copyright math. univ-monttp2.ff(O.Suzuki)osuzuki\copyright cssa. chs.nihon-u.ac.jp

Keywords:Mendel’s law, Jordan algebra and Context free language

Abstract. This is the secondpart ofthe paper with the same title. A concept ofMendel algebra $wth$ mutation is introduced and it is proved that a certain class of (non-commutative) Jordan algebras and flexible algebras can be found in the algebra and that a classification theory of non-associative algebras based on the Mendel algebras is given from a point of view in genetics.

Introduction In the previous paper we have introduced a method ofgenetics to non-associative

algebras and generate them by use ofthe mathematical formulations ofMendel’s law systematically and classify them based on these laws ([6]). There we have not included the concept ofmutation in genetics. In this paper we introduce a concept of mutation in the Mendel’s laws and find a generation scheme ofnon-associative algebras including flexible algebra and Jordan algebra by Mendel’s laws systematically. Hence we may expect to find a new field ofnon-associative algebras in genetics. We introduce a concept ofMendel algebras with mutations following the Mendel’s separation law in genetics. We call the linear space $M$ generated by generators $S_{1},S_{2},\ldots,S_{n}$ Mendel algebra, when generators satisfi, the following commutation relations and the distributive law:

$S_{\dot{i}}*S_{j}= \frac{1}{2}\{pS_{j}+qS_{j}\}(p>0, q>0,p+q=1)$

We notice that in the case where $p=q=1/2$ , the Mendel algebra is called of mutation ffee. We call the Mendel algebra with mutation Mendel algebra simply.

数理解析研究所講究録 第 1796巻 2012年 39-46 39

At first we notice that the Mendel algebra is non-associative and non-commutative when it has mutations. We want to find non-associative algebras including the flexible algebras and Jordan algebras in Mendel algebras. We recall the following definitions:

flexible algebra: $(XY)X=X(l\chi)$ Jordan algebra: $(((A:\gamma)Y)X)=(\lambda:Y)(IK)$

for any pair ofelements $\forall_{X^{\forall}Y}$ ofthe algebras.

The main results ofthis paper can be stated as follows: (1)$Mendel$ algebra is flexible algebra and Jordan algebra(Theorem I and II). (2)$A$ family of flexible algebras and Jordan algebras can be generated by mathematical formulation ofMendel’s laws: Separation law, mating law and independent law and mutation (Theorem III). (3) We can give a classification ofnon-associative algebras by use ofthe shift invariance condition in Mendel algebras. We can discuss these commutation relations in terms of,,shift invariant elements“of an algebra. Then we can show that the shift invariant algebras on Mendel algebras automatically derive a family ofnon- associative algebras including flexible algebras and Jordan algebras.

1. Mendel’s laws In this section we recall some basic facts on Mendel’s law ([4]). In 1860, Mendel

has discovered the ffindamental laws in genetics, which are called Mendel’s laws. They constitute three laws: (l)Separation law, (2) Mating law, (3) Independent law. Later (4) Mutation is discovered. Here we include this law in Mendel’s law. We describe the laws by use of figures and we omit its description expect the description on mutation. (1) Separation law

$–$ $\cdot$ ’

–

(2) Mating law

Mendel’s separation law

$\ovalbox{\tt\small REJECT} X[X_{2}\ovalbox{\tt\small REJECT}[xI\ovalbox{\tt\small REJECT}_{\backslash }|\rfloor 1’Sep\delta ratio\cap|_{\backslash }^{1aw}$

$x$ $\mathscr{H}\prod x_{2}\ovalbox{\tt\small REJECT}[X\sum \mathscr{H}$

$\sim$

Mating process $x$ $\mathscr{F}Dx_{2}\rceil \mathscr{F}$ $x$ ue

$\lrcorner 1$ mating

$\overline{\mathscr{K}x\}$ $|\overline{\mathscr{L}X_{2}^{\Psi}}$ $\overline{\mathscr{T}^{\ovalbox{\tt\small REJECT}}X}$

(Each element is commutative)

40

(3) Independent law

Mendel $s$ independent aw

$\underline{\prod d}$ $\blacksquare$

$k\overline{\mathscr{J}}$

$a$ $\overline{\ovalbox{\tt\small REJECT}}$

$J_{\vee}^{\sim}t$

KIIIi $\Xi^{A}F^{\ell}A:^{t}f::$. fi (4) Mutation

Here we have to say that our condition ofthe mutation on the algebra is artificial ffom the biological view point. Hence we have to make some comments on mutations. In this paper we regard the causes ofmutations as the recombinations or the Holiday stmctures in genetics([4]).

$(\cdot!_{0\epsilon r}\_{\overline{\overline{fot}}}?ql\overline{\overline{f\cdot\prime}}$

; $(b\underline{)}-$

$\{r^{H\cdot\infty\underline{d}\cup}-.8^{1\nu xre,on}--$

$(e|$

$D$

$\prime\prime g-3$ $\downarrow\iota_{l9}\},-y$

$s_{*},sx_{\overline{\overline{\aleph*0t r\mu*x\epsilon Mr\propto omb\mathfrak{n}*ns}}}s \frac{\nu}{dPP}6$ $*l3\overline{\overline{\overline{d\prime N^{\circ}H*\dot{ro}\alpha uu\Re orumWnm}}e}$

2. Mendel algebra M(p,q) In this section we introduce a several non-associative algebras which are motivated

by Mendel’s law ([5]): (1) Mendel algebra M(p,q) Let $A(=R[S_{1},S_{2},\ldots,S.])$ be an algebra. Introducing the product by

$\{\begin{array}{l}S_{i}*S_{j}=\frac{1}{2}\{pS_{i}+qS_{j}\}(p+q=l(p>0,q>0))X^{*}Y=\sum_{i,j=1}^{n}\alpha_{i}\beta_{j}S_{i}^{*}S_{j}(X=\sum_{i=1}^{n}\alpha_{i}S_{i},Y=\sum_{i=1}^{n}\beta_{i}S_{i})\end{array}$

we have an algebra $M_{p,q}^{(n)}(R)$ which is called n-dimensional Mendel algebra simply. We see that $M_{p,q}^{(n)}(R)$ is a non-commutative and non-associative algebra in the case

41

of $p\neq q$ . Otherwise it is commutative.

We notice a basic property holds on Mendel algebras which might be a mathematical formulation ofHardy-Weinberg’s law ([4]):

$( \sum_{l=1}^{n}\alpha_{i}S_{i})^{2}=\sum_{j=1}^{n}\alpha_{i}S_{j}(\sum_{i=1}^{n}\alpha_{j}=1)$

(2)Original Mendel algebra $M(1l2,1/2)$ The algebra $M(1/2,1/2)$ is called Mendel algebra mutation ffee. Putting

$[x]_{\rfloor 1}^{/}[x]\ovalbox{\tt\small REJECT}_{\mathscr{P}}$

$\{X^{*}Y=\sum_{j=1}^{n}\alpha_{i}\beta_{j}S_{i}^{*}S_{j}(X=\sum_{i-- 1}^{n}\alpha_{i}S_{i},Y=\sum_{i\overline{-}1}^{n}\beta_{i}S_{i})S_{i}*S_{j}=\frac{l}{2}\{S_{i}+S_{j}\}$

$X_{1}^{*}Y_{1}= \frac{1}{2}(X_{1}+Y_{1})$

we have an algebra $M^{(n)}(1/2,1/2)$ which is called n-dimensional mutation ffee Mendel algebra.

(3) Altemative Mendel algebra Let $A(=R[S_{1},S_{2},\ldots,S_{n}])$ be an algebra. Introducing the product by

$\{X^{*}Y=\sum_{i,j\approx 1}^{n}\alpha_{i}\beta_{j}S_{i}^{*}S_{j}(X=\sum_{-,- 1}^{n}\alpha_{i}S_{i},Y=\sum_{i=1}^{n}\beta_{i}S_{i})S_{i}*S_{j}=\frac{l}{2}\{S_{i}-S_{\dot{j}}\}$

we have an algebra $M_{(-)}^{(n)}(R)$ which is called n-dimensional altemative Mendel algebra. Then we see that $M_{(-)}^{(n)}(R)$ is a non-commutative and non-associative algebra.

3. Mendel algebra is flexible algebra In this section we treat flexible algebras ffom our point ofview. We begin with the definition ([6]): An algebra $A$ is called flexible algebra, ifthe following commutation relation is satisfied:

$\forall X,\forall Y\in A\Rightarrow(XY)X=X(lK)$.

Next we proceed to flexible algebras generated by Mendel algebras. Theorem I (1) A Mendel algebra $M(p,q)(n\geq 2)$ is a non-commutative, non-associative flexible algebra if $p\neq q$ . Especially it is commutative when $p=q=1/2$ . (2) $M_{(-)}^{(n)}(n\geq 2)$ is a non-commutative, non-associative flexible algebra. Proof: Putting $X= \sum\alpha_{j}S_{l},Y=\sum\beta_{i}S_{i}$ , we see $((XY)X)= \sum\alpha_{i}\beta_{j}\alpha_{k}(S_{i}^{*}S_{j})^{*}S_{k}$ , and $(X( IK))=\sum\alpha_{i}\beta_{j}\alpha_{k}S_{i}^{*}(S_{j}^{*}S_{k})$ . Hence to prove the assertion, it is enough to prove the following equality:

$\sum\alpha_{i}\beta_{j}\alpha_{k}(S_{i}^{*}S_{j})^{*}S_{k}=\sum\alpha_{i}\beta_{j}\alpha_{k}S_{i}^{*}(S_{j}^{*}S_{k})$ .

42

At first we notice the following equalities:

$(^{*})\{\begin{array}{l}(S_{i}^{*}S_{j})^{*}S_{k}=p^{2}S_{i}+pqS_{j}+qS_{k}S_{l}^{*}(s, *s_{k})=pS_{l}+pqS_{j}+q^{2}S_{k}\end{array}$

Hence we have $\sum\alpha_{l}\beta_{j}\alpha_{k}(S_{j}^{*}S,)^{*}S_{k}-\sum\alpha_{i}\beta_{j}\alpha_{k}S^{*}(S_{j}^{*}S_{k})$

$= \sum\alpha_{i}\beta_{j}\alpha_{k}(pq(S_{i}-S_{k}))=0$

Hence we have proved the assertion. The proof for altemative Mendel algebra is almost same and may be omitted.

4. Mendel algebra is Jordan algebra In this section we make a Jordan algebra by a genetic method ([3], [7]): An algebra

$J$ is called Jordan algebra ifthe commutation relation holds for $\forall X,\forall Y\in J$ : $(((A\ddagger Y)Y)X)=((\ovalbox{\tt\small REJECT})(IK))$ .

When it is commutative, it is called Jordan algebra simply. Otherwise it is called non