Integrated 600V GaN Half-Bridge for E-Mobility
The Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics IAF has claimed the world's first half-bridge GaN circuit for the 600-Volt class in which all the electronic components are monolithically integrated on one chip. Monolithically integrated half bridges are key building blocks of compact voltage converters and significantly increase the efficiency of power electronics devices.
Voltage converters are in high demand. Used in mains adapters and chargers for smartphones, laptops and low-voltage household appliances, they can be found everywhere, and â€“ due to our habit of plugging in more and more electrical devices to the mains power supply â€“ they are becoming increasingly widespread. The energy transition and e-mobility are also increasing the demand for reliable and, above all, efficient and compact voltage converters of all kinds. Half-bridge circuits are the centerpiece of many voltage converters.
Fraunhofer IAF has now produced and demonstrated the worldâ€™s first monolithically integrated GaN half bridge for the important 600-Volt class. In power electronics components, this is the standard volt class for grid-connected electrical devices, ranging from tablets and washing machines to e-bikes and electric cars.
Monolithic integration involves combining several components on a single GaN chip, enabling extremely small, powerful systems to be created. Besides being very compact, monolithically integrated half-bridge circuits have significantly better electronic properties. For example, the switching frequency can be improved by a factor of around 10 in comparison with conventional voltage converters.
â€œA switching frequency of up to 3 MHz allows us to achieve a much greater power density. This is very important in areas such as e-mobility, where many converters which are as efficient as possible have to be fitted in very little space,â€ says Richard Reiner, research associate at Fraunhofer IAF in the Power Electronics business unit.
Monolithically integrated half bridges are more compact, are easier to assemble and improve reliability. The German government has set itself the target of putting one million electric cars on the countryâ€™s roads by 2020. Covering long distances without generating any emissions requires not only powerful batteries but also the development of lightweight electric cars which generate as little energy as possible.
â€œThis can only be accomplished using electronic components based on semiconductor materials such as gallium nitride, which in contrast to silicon carbide can be grown as epitaxial layer on cost-effective, large area silicon substrates.,â€ Reiner continued.
When used to produce electronic components for electric vehicles, GaN enables higher power densities to be achieved more energy efficiently. The aim of car manufacturers and users is to develop extremely efficient on-board chargers for electric vehicles which take up as little space as possible.
Their compact design minimizes negative influences such as line impedances, improving the electrical switching characteristics. The integration of additional sensor technology, such as a thermal monitoring system, improves operation even further.
â€œThis innovative approach brings a new level of power density, efficiency, robustness, functionality and reliability to e-mobility,â€ explains Dr. Patrick Waltereit, deputy head of the Power Electronics business unit at Fraunhofer IAF.
Fraunhofer IAF is presenting its monolithically integrated half-bridge circuit at PCIM Europe in Nuremberg (hall 7, booth 237) from May 16â€“18, 2017.